Puppy vaccine schedule: What dog vaccinations will your pup need and when?

Here’s everything you need to know about planning your puppy’s first shots and how dog vaccinations protect your pup.

Written by Alex Coleman & Brooke Bundy

— Medically reviewed by Dr. Dwight Alleyne

Updated January 19, 2024.


The essentials

  • Expect to pay around $150 for core vaccines — These vaccines are considered vital for your dog.
  • Mild side effects are common — When your pup gets a vaccine dose, you can expect mild side effects such as lethargy or a low-grade fever.
  • Keep track of your pup’s paperwork — Have a secure place in your home for storing your pet’s paperwork, including vaccination records.

You’ve got so many things to do when you bring home a new furry family member. One of the most important things to add to your list is getting your puppy’s vaccinations.

If you adopted your puppy from a shelter, likely they’ve already received some, if not all, of their necessary vaccines. If they have, you’ll receive their medical records in their adoption folder, which you’ll take to the vet on their first visit. You can then work with your vet to determine what vaccines or boosters your dog is due for next.

If you got your puppy from a breeder or if they haven’t received their vaccinations, your veterinarian will walk you through the vaccination schedule at your pup’s first vet visit.

Here’s what you need to know about puppy vaccine schedules and dog vaccinations.

Core vs. non-core vaccinations

Core vaccines protect your puppy against the most prevalent, dangerous, and contagious diseases. These essential vaccinations include canine parvovirus, canine distemper, canine hepatitis, and rabies. Non-core vaccines are vaccinations your dog’s vet may recommend based on unique factors such as your dog’s breed or where you live.

If you plan to travel with your pet on an airline, you will be asked to provide your pet’s vaccination record. In addition to the vaccines that are legally required or considered core vaccines,  some non-core vaccinations may be required to travel or board your dog. You’ll also need to keep a copy of your puppy’s medical records on file for future vet visits.

Core vaccinations for puppies 

While rabies vaccination is the only vaccine required by law in most states, all core vaccinations are essential to ensuring your pet’s safety and health. Here’s a list of core vaccinations that your dog can benefit from:

  • Distemper
  • Parvovirus
  • Adenovirus
  • Parainfluenza
  • Rabies

The DHPP vaccine is a five-in-one core vaccine that prevents distemper, hepatitis/adenovirus, parvovirus, and parainfluenza. Pet owners can consult with their vet to see if the DHPP vaccine is right for their pup; as getting this vaccine can reduce the number of vet visits your pup will have to make.

Non-core vaccines for puppies

While non-core vaccines are considered optional, your veterinarian may recommend one or multiple vaccines on this list based on your geographical location, your dog’s specific needs based on breed or health history, or your and your dog’s lifestyle needs.

For example, Texas experiences a large number of rattlesnake bites, so rural dogs are commonly inoculated with a rattlesnake venom vaccine to give them some life-saving time before they can get to the emergency vet.

Some common non-core vaccines include:

  • Bordetella
  • Canine influenza
  • Leptospirosis
  • Lyme disease
  • Coronavirus

Bordetella is considered a core vaccine in some areas because of its prevalence. I usually recommend Bordetella, Canine Influenza, and Leptospirosis, especially to dogs that will be around a lot of other dogs.

Dr. Dwight Alleyne

What a puppy vaccination schedule looks like

Dog vaccination schedules are not a one-size-fits-all for pups. Several factors determine which dog vaccines are necessary, including your dog’s breed, your geographical location, and your dog’s unique risk factors. A pup’s weight, health, and age are also taken into account.

Some pet parents get multiple shots in one visit to help reduce the stress their dog has to endure at the vet’s office. Some pups can tolerate this, though other pet parents may choose to reduce soreness and side effects for their puppy by spacing out the vaccinations. Your veterinarian can help determine the specific time frames that work best for you and your furry friend.

Seeing a typical puppy vaccination schedule on paper helps you keep track of when to call your vet for follow-up appointments. While it might seem like overwhelming rounds of vaccines, the immunizations your vet gives your puppy during the first few months of age prepare them for a healthy life.

Puppy’s Age Core Vaccines Non-core Vaccines
6-8 weeks Distemper, parvovirus Bordetella
10-12 weeks DHPP or individual vaccines for distemper, adenovirus, parainfluenza, and parvovirus Influenza, leptospirosis, Bordetella, Lyme disease if recommended by a vet
16-18 weeks DHPP or individual vaccines for distemper, adenovirus, parainfluenza, parvovirus, and rabies Influenza, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, Bordetella based on lifestyle
12-16 months DHPP, rabies booster according to state laws Coronavirus, leptospirosis, Bordetella, Lyme disease if recommended by a vet
Every 1-2 years DHPP, rabies booster according to state laws Influenza, coronavirus, leptospirosis, Bordetella, Lyme disease based on lifestyle
Every 1-3 years A 1- or 3-year rabies booster vaccine as required by law. None


Vaccinations at one year and beyond

At around 16 weeks old, your dog completes their last round of puppy vaccines. Unless you opt for a non-core vaccine, you’re usually set until their first birthday. At that point, your dog will be due for a DHPP booster.

Depending on your state’s laws, rabies boosters are typically required when your pup reaches one year old, then every three years if the three-year vaccine is available. If not, they’ll be due for a rabies booster every year at their annual checkup. Call ahead to see which shots your dog requires.

The DHPP vaccine booster is typically administered every year or once every three years after the initial vaccines. Bordetella, leptospirosis, influenza, and Lyme disease boosters can be administered annually if you and your vet decide these are good choices for your pet.

Titer test

Dog owners may opt to give their dog a titer test, which measures your dog’s immunity to determine which vaccines are necessary. However, the rabies vaccination is not optional for a titer test as it is required by law across the majority of the United States.

How much do puppy vaccinations cost?

On average, each vaccine costs between $25 and $50. This doesn’t include any exam fees. If you’re looking to save money, you might want to try to schedule some of their shots at a vaccine clinic that doesn’t charge an exam fee like a traditional veterinarian’s office would. Additionally, some veterinarian clinics may offer a wellness bundle or a discount on multiple vaccines.

Pet insurance doesn’t typically cover vaccines since they’re considered a routine wellness expense, but some plans do. Always check with your provider to see what they might cover before you go.

What diseases do vaccinations protect against?

Core vaccines protect your pet against common, contagious, and dangerous diseases. Non-core vaccines may be optional, depending on your pet’s risk. Let’s take a look at some of the diseases that are addressed in your puppy’s vaccine schedule:

What are common vaccine side effects in dogs and puppies?

Just like in humans, your dog may experience mild vaccine side effects  . For example, dogs usually feel tired after receiving their shots. A low-grade fever or mild allergy symptoms such as watery eyes may occur as well. It’s fairly common for dogs to experience soreness at the injection site and have a lower appetite for a couple of days.

Call your veterinarian immediately if you notice any signs of a severe adverse vaccine reaction, such as seizures, collapse, or if more than 24 hours have passed without your pet eating or drinking.

Scheduling your puppy’s first rounds of vaccines may seem daunting, but your local vet’s office will be happy to help. Dog vaccines are essential for protecting our furry friends against a host of devastating, preventable diseases. In some cases, they may even be mandated by law, such as the rabies vaccine.

If your dog has an unknown medical history or if you’re unsure where to start, ask your vet for advice. They’ll catch your dog up with the necessary vaccines to protect them from infectious diseases and help you stay on track when they’re due again.

Frequently asked questions

What is the proper vaccine schedule for a puppy?

Your new puppy needs to go to the vet every 4 weeks between the time they’re 6 and 16 weeks of age to receive all of their core puppy vaccines. Afterward, you’ll need to consult your vet for any additional vaccinations that they might recommend.

How many weeks between 1st and 2nd puppy vaccination?

Puppy vaccines are usually given at least a couple of weeks apart from each other. Preferably, you should wait about three weeks between rounds of vaccines, but your vet may recommend more frequently if they’ve fallen behind.

How many shots do puppies need before going out?

After your puppy’s third round of vaccinations, between 16-18 weeks, it’s safe for them to go to public places like the dog park and interact with unfamiliar dogs.

My puppy’s vaccine schedule is off. Will we have to start over?

No, you’ll just need to schedule an appointment with your vet as soon as possible to catch your pup up with the necessary vaccines.

How is the vaccination schedule for dogs determined?

The American Animal Hospital Association determines the recommended schedules for core and non-core vaccinations and booster shots for puppies and adult dogs.

Surviving your puppy’s first year: A guide to puppy life stages

Surviving your puppy’s first year: A guide to puppy life stages

Learn the dates, milestones, and tips you need to welcome a new member to your family and crush your first year as a pup parent.

Written by Christine Caplan

— Medically reviewed by Dr. Erica Irish


Updated December 5, 2023

The essentials

  • Puppy stages of development are often marked by milestones — Puppyhood is a delightful time full of cuddles and growth but requires extra patience and commitment.
  • Expect a lot of growth at first — Puppies grow rapidly during the first 30 days of development, gaining physical and psychological capabilities.
  • Socialization during the first few months is important. — Puppies develop basic behaviors and learn social cues and commands during the first six months of life, setting the foundation for a well-mannered companion.

So, you’ve decided to get a puppy. While welcoming a new furry friend into your family may seem daunting, it should also be exciting. With the right advice, pet parents should be eager to take on all the challenges and milestones puppyhood has to offer.

Our helpful guide covers all the steps, milestones, advice, and information you need to prepare you and your home for a furry new addition.

Puppy stages of life

Puppies develop rapidly during their first year and experience various changes. Here are some of the most significant stages they pass through:

Puppy developmental stages chart

Stage name Age Description
Newborn 0-3 weeks At this stage, they will spend most of their time sleeping and nursing from their mother.
Early socialization 3-12 weeks This is one of the most critical stages for puppies when they learn how to interact with people and other animals. This period is when owners should introduce puppies to social experiences.
Juvenile 12-24 weeks During this period, puppies will become more independent as they explore their environment, play with other dogs, and learn basic obedience commands such as sit, stay, come, etc.
Adolescent 6-18 months During this stage, puppies will reach sexual maturity, which can cause changes in behavior, such as increased energy levels or aggression toward other dogs and people. Training during this period is essential to ensure proper socialization skills are developed.
Adult 18 months+ At this stage, puppies have almost reached full size, and their behavior should be relatively consistent, but training and socialization should continue throughout adulthood.

Preparing for your puppy

Puppies typically stay with their mother until they reach 8 weeks, a crucial time in their development. During this time, puppies learn important lessons from their mother, such as interacting with other animals, the beginnings of potty training, and an understanding of proper social behavior. Through learning these lessons from their mother, puppies develop the skills necessary for living in a loving home.

After leaving the litter, puppies are ready to explore and discover the world around them. During this growth period, your puppy must have plenty of opportunities to safely explore its environment and be exposed to various stimuli to help them build confidence  and trust in humans.

Surviving the first night

Puppies typically go to their new homes between the 8-10 week range. During this time, puppies reach a certain level of development and build a bond with their littermates and humans.

By 8-10 weeks, many puppies have developed basic obedience skills such as coming when called  and socializing well with both people and other animals in the home. This is also the ideal age for housebreaking as they become more aware of their environment.

The first 30 days with your puppy

The first month of puppyhood is exciting, but try not to overwhelm your pup. These first 30 days should be about introductions, firsts, and a smooth transition for your puppy as they adjust to their new home and family.

Establish house rules

House rules are important for your puppy just as they are for human children. Set up a routine for them to follow and gain confidence around the house. Start establishing verbal cues to regular activities (using the potty, calling them by their name, praise, etc.)

This is also where boundaries can be set up. Will your pup be allowed on the furniture? Are they allowed in certain rooms? These are all things to consider when creating your house rules.

The first six months with a puppy

In the first six months of a puppy’s life, they are undergoing a rapid period of growth and development. During this time, puppies learn to play, interact with other animals and people, and develop social skills.

As they near the end of their first six months, most puppies have started to emerge from puppyhood and become more independent. They can now recognize basic commands and have begun to explore their environment more confidently.

This stage is important for ensuring that puppies become well-adjusted, healthy dogs capable of forming strong relationships with their owners and other animals. This is the stage when puppies develop essential life skills!

A year old and beyond

When your pup hits a year old, the adventure is just beginning! Bringing home a puppy is exciting but also confusing, and there are ways to ensure all your hard work helps your relationship flourish. Training is still crucial as your pup may decide that selective listening is sometimes part of the agenda on a walk or hike.

It’s amazing to watch a puppy’s life evolve, but puppyhood is not for everyone.

Every development phase has challenges and behavior changes throughout your pup’s life. The transitional stage, or the teenage phase, is the most difficult. This stage of puppy development is when pet parents grow frustrated. But once you work past the roadblocks, you’ll have a well-adjusted adult dog to love for the rest of their lives!

Frequently asked questions

What is the hardest puppy stage?

The hardest puppy stage is usually the adolescent stage. From about six months to 18 months, puppies can become unpredictable and test their boundaries. This is when they need the most supervision and training to ensure that they develop good habits and behaviors.

Where should a puppy spend the first night?

A puppy should spend the night in a safe, comfortable place such as a crate or bed. It should be located in a quiet area of the house away from loud noises and distractions. The area should also be free of hazardous materials that could harm the puppy. Many owners place their pup’s bed next to their own bed.

What should you not do with a new puppy?

There are several no-nos owners should be aware of when it comes to new puppies. These include not leaving the puppy alone for extended periods of time, not ignoring signs of distress, and not using punishing or negative reinforcement to train your pup.

How do you calm an overstimulated puppy?

To calm an overstimulated pup, it is important to be patient and understanding. Start by giving your pup some time and space to relax. Take them for a walk or play a quiet game, such as fetch or tug-of-war. Give your pup plenty of snuggles and praises during this time to help them destress.

10 Ways to Advance Animal Welfare in Your Community

10 Ways to Advance Animal Welfare in Your Community


Perhaps you live in an area where animal welfare doesn’t seem to be a priority. If seeing neglected or abandoned animals hurts your heart, you can start working to create a better world for animals. For example, you can contribute to organizations such as the Minnesota Animal Services Alliance! These resources will help you identify ways to support this cause, from starting and marketing your own nonprofit to fostering pets in need.


Helping Animals From Home


You don’t have to work in the animal welfare field to help out in this area. Here’s how anyone can give animals a better life.



Support Community Organizations


Chances are, the animal welfare organizations in your community could use your support. Here are a few resources to help you get started:



Establish Your Own Nonprofit


If you have an idea for an animal welfare nonprofit, you can turn to these resources to establish your organization.



You don’t have to stay on the sidelines when it comes to helping animals in need. Anyone can make a positive impact! By leveraging these resources, you can create an animal welfare nonprofit, adopt a rescue pet, and more.


Do you want to assist a local nonprofit that helps animals? Pitch in with the Minnesota Animal Services Alliance! Visit the website today to learn more about our volunteer opportunities.


Photo via Pexels

Tail Wagging Transitions: Crafting a Seamless Home Transition with Your Pet

Tail Wagging Transitions: Crafting a Seamless Home Transition with Your Pet

Embarking on the journey of relocating to a fresh abode is thrilling, but for the

beloved four-legged members of the family, it can also bring a whirlwind of emotions. Creating a serene transition for everyone involved requires a blend of meticulous planning and affectionate consideration. Delve into this guide from Minnesota Animal Services Alliance to learn how to effortlessly introduce a pet to a new living space, ensuring a harmonious move.

Advance Preparation with a Comprehensive Plan

Initiating the process of relocating early is pivotal to making it effortless. By drafting a list of tasks with respective deadlines, it ensures that no critical aspect is forgotten. Among the essential tasks are organizing pet belongings, searching for accommodations that welcome pets, and confirming a veterinary appointment prior to the transition.

Prioritize Financial Considerations

Long-distance relocations, especially inter-state ones, can become financially taxing. Yet, there are solutions to mitigate expenses. For those lucky enough to have acquaintances or kin in their destination, it’s prudent to consider temporarily lodging with them. By doing so, both humans and pets can have a brief respite, allowing time to explore local job and residence prospects. Specifically, if you have family or friends in the area you’re relocating to, arrange for yourself and your pet to stay with them for a few days while you investigate local employment and housing options. It’s also paramount to scout for housing options that not only suit financial constraints but also warmly welcome pets.

Compile and Systematize Health Documents

Before setting foot in the new domicile, ensuring all of the pet’s health documents are in order is of utmost importance. Holding duplicates of essential health papers, like vaccination proof, in an easily accessible place can be a lifesaver in unforeseen situations. Furthermore, an accurate record of any medications and vaccinations should be at hand.

Ensure a Safe Environment

The excitement of a fresh start should not overshadow the significance of safety. Taking steps to make sure the new surroundings are devoid of risks for pets is essential. This involves eliminating potential threats such as harmful plants or substances and ensuring that areas like gardens are secure from escape attempts. It’s equally vital to update any form of pet identification with the latest contact details, ensuring a swift reunion in case of accidental separations.

Place Emphasis on Pet Well-Being

In the quest to provide an atmosphere of comfort, investing in items reminiscent of the old home can be instrumental. Products like a beloved blanket, favored toys, or specific feeding utensils can make the new setting feel more like home. When on the hunt for such items, while customer ratings can be a great resource, reviews from veterinarians are an even better way to feel confident you’re buying products that will also keep your pet healthy and safe, so look for websites that offer product reviews from these animal pros.

Uphold Familiar Routines

Change, even if it’s for the better, can be unnerving. Amidst the hustle of relocating, making an effort to adhere to the usual pet schedules concerning meals, strolls, and recreation is imperative. Offering this sense of familiarity can be the anchor that keeps them grounded during tumultuous times.

Veterinary Assessment Before Departure

One of the paramount tasks prior to setting off is to consult with a veterinarian. Confirming that the pet is in optimal health, has received all required shots, and possesses an adequate stock of vital medications can alleviate many worries. Moreover, it’s an opportune moment to discuss any potential issues or special care the pet might need in the new environment.

Navigating the pathway to a fresh start with a pet doesn’t have to be overwhelmingly challenging. A meticulous adherence to the guidelines provided can transform the journey from simply tolerable to genuinely delightful. The aspiration is for each pet’s shift to their new haven to be brimming with ease, safety, and immeasurable happiness. This thoughtful approach ensures that the transition becomes a harmonious chapter in the life of both the pet and the owner.

For field rescue services for sick, injured, abused or neglected, and distressed animals, contact Minnesota Animal Services Alliance today!

Hot Weather Safety Tips

We all love spending the long, sunny days of summer outdoors with our furry companions, but being overeager in hot weather can spell danger. To prevent your pet from overheating, take these simple precautions provided by ASPCA experts:

  • Visit the vet for a spring or early-summer checkup. Make sure your pets get tested for heartworm if they aren’t on year-round preventative medication.
  • Pets can get dehydrated quickly, so give them plenty of fresh, clean water when it’s hot or humid outdoors. Make sure your pets have a shady place to get out of the sun, be careful not to over-exercise them, and keep them indoors when it’s extremely hot.
  • Know the symptoms of overheating in pets, which include excessive panting or difficulty breathing, increased heart and respiratory rate, drooling, mild weakness, stupor or even collapse. Symptoms can also include seizures, bloody diarrhea and vomit along with an elevated body temperature of over 104 degrees.
  • Animals with flat faces, like Pugs and Persian cats, are more susceptible to heat stroke since they cannot pant as effectively. These pets, along with the elderly, the overweight, and those with heart or lung diseases, should be kept cool in air-conditioned rooms as much as possible.
  • Never leave your animals alone in a parked vehicle. Not only can it lead to fatal heat stroke, it is illegal in several states!
  • Do not leave pets unsupervised around a pool—not all dogs are good swimmers. Introduce your pets to water gradually and make sure they wear flotation devices when on boats. Rinse your dog off after swimming to remove chlorine or salt from his fur, and try to keep your dog from drinking pool water, which contains chlorine and other chemicals.
  • Open unscreened windows pose a real danger to pets, who often fall out of them. Keep all unscreened windows or doors in your home closed, and make sure adjustable screens are tightly secured.
  • Feel free to trim longer hair on your dog, but never shave your dog: The layers of dogs’ coats protect them from overheating and sunburn. Brushing cats more often than usual can prevent problems caused by excessive heat. And be sure that any sunscreen or insect repellent product you use on your pets is labeled specifically for use on animals.
  • When the temperature is very high, don’t let your dog linger on hot asphalt. Being so close to the ground, your pooch’s body can heat up quickly, and sensitive paw pads can burn. Keep walks during these times to a minimum.
  • Commonly used rodenticides and lawn and garden insecticides can be harmful to cats and dogs if ingested, so keep them out of reach. Keep citronella candles, tiki torch products and insect coils of out pets’ reach as well. Call your veterinarian or the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center at (888) 426-4435 if you suspect your animal has ingested a poisonous substance.
  • Remember that food and drink commonly found at barbeques can be poisonous to pets. Keep alcoholic beverages away from pets, as they can cause intoxication, depression and comas. Similarly, remember that the snacks enjoyed by your human friends should not be a treat for your pet; any change of diet, even for one meal, may give your dog or cat severe digestive ailments. Avoid raisins, grapes, onions, chocolate and products with the sweetener xylitol. Please visit our People Foods to Avoid Feeding Your Pets page for more information.
  • Please leave pets at home when you head out to Fourth of July celebrations, and never use fireworks around pets. Exposure to lit fireworks can potentially result in severe burns or trauma, and even unused fireworks can contain hazardous materials. Many pets are also fearful of loud noises and can become lost, scared or disoriented, so it’s best to keep your little guys safe from the noise in a quiet, sheltered and escape-proof area of your home.

A Bird Hit My Window. What Should I Do?

Window strikes are startling and traumatic to watch. But, oftentimes the bird is simply stunned and will fly away in as little as 15 minutes to as long as a couple hours. We recommend the following steps, to help you and the bird reduce stress and save time. We should note that if there is any blood, or an obviously broken wing that’s limply hanging, bring the bird in right away.

  1. If the bird is near a low bush, pick the bird up and place it at the base of the bush.
  2. If it’s cold outside or you’re worried about feral cats, you may place the bird in a shoe box and put the shoe box in your garage or unused room. Be sure to close the door and keep the room quiet to help reduce stress on the already stressed bird.
  3. After one hour, take the shoe box outside and lift the lid. At this point, hopefully the bird will fly away. If not, the bird has either died from extreme internal injuries (which we could not have done anything to reverse) or it’s evident that the bird has an injured wing, etc., at which point you should bring it into the Wildlife Rehablitation Center in Roseville..

Wildlife Rehabilitation Center

2530 Dale St N, Roseville, MN 55113


Cold Weather Safety Tips

Exposure to winter’s dry, cold air and chilly rain, sleet and snow can cause chapped paws and itchy, flaking skin, but these aren’t the only discomforts pets can suffer. Winter walks can become downright dangerous if chemicals from ice-melting agents are licked off of bare paws. To help prevent cold weather dangers from affecting your pet’s health, please heed the following advice from our experts:

  • Repeatedly coming out of the cold into the dry heat of your home can cause itchy, flaking skin. Keep your home humidified and towel dry your pet as soon as he comes inside, paying special attention to his feet and in-between the toes. Remove any snow balls from between his foot pads.
  • Never shave your dog down to the skin in winter, as a longer coat will provide more warmth. If your dog is long-haired, simply trim him to minimize the clinging ice balls, salt crystals and de-icing chemicals that can dry his skin, and don’t neglect the hair between his toes. If your dog is short-haired, consider getting him a coat or sweater with a high collar or turtleneck with coverage from the base of the tail to the belly. For many dogs, this is regulation winter wear.
  • Bring a towel on long walks to clean off stinging, irritated paws. After each walk, wash and dry your pet’s feet and stomach to remove ice, salt and chemicals—and check for cracks in paw pads or redness between the toes.
  • Bathe your pets as little as possible during cold spells. Washing too often can remove essential oils and increase the chance of developing dry, flaky skin. If your pooch must be bathed, ask your vet to recommend a moisturizing shampoo and/or rinse.
  • Massaging petroleum jelly or other paw protectants into paw pads before going outside can help protect from salt and chemical agents. Booties provide even more coverage and can also prevent sand and salt from getting lodged between bare toes and causing irritation. Use pet-friendly ice melts whenever possible.
  • Like coolant, antifreeze is a lethal poison for dogs and cats. Be sure to thoroughly clean up any spills from your vehicle, and consider using products that contain propylene glycol rather than ethylene glycol.
  • Pets burn extra energy by trying to stay warm in wintertime. Feeding your pet a little bit more during the cold weather months can provide much-needed calories, and making sure she has plenty of water to drink will help keep her well-hydrated and her skin less dry.
  • Make sure your companion animal has a warm place to sleep, off the floor and away from all drafts. A cozy dog or cat bed with a warm blanket or pillow is perfect.
  • Remember, if it’s too cold for you, it’s probably too cold for your pet, so keep your animals inside. If left outdoors, pets can freeze, become disoriented, lost, stolen, injured or killed. In addition, don’t leave pets alone in a car during cold weather, as cars can act as refrigerators that hold in the cold and cause animals to freeze to death.